Four Underlying Causes of World War 1
1. Military Build-up or Arms Race: A policy of building and maintaining armies as a national power; led to patriotism and nationalism
2. By 1914 – all the major powers had large armies and navies
a. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, France and the Ottoman Empire
i. German NAVAL race with Great Britain over who would dominate the seas
ii. Russian competition with Austrian-Hungarian Empire over who had the largest standing army
PRE WAR ALLIANCES
POST WAR ALLIANCES
1. Healthy Nationalism - devotion to one’s Nation which brings about national pride, a common culture & history.
2. Aggressive or Extreme Nationalism borders on racist/discriminatory beliefs that one race or nationality is actually superior to another.
a. Direct result of Imperialism.
3. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans in 1914 known as the “Powder Keg” of Europe.
a. In the Balkans, many groups wanted independence: Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, Croatians .
The countries involved in World War 1 were Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy, Serbia, France, Russia, Britain, and the U.S. Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary formed the Triple Alliance because they feared certain European countries. Those certain European countries were France, Russia, and Britain, (the Allies) formed the Triple Entente.
Some of the arguments from Serbia, is that they wanted to create their own large Slavic (independent) state. Austria-Hungary did not let them. So, Serbia asassinated their heir to their throne, Archduke France Ferdinand. Germany was Austro-Hungarian's ally so they got involved and Russia was Serbia's 'big brother' so they got involved too. On July 23, the Austro-Hungarian government sent Serbia an Ultimatum containing 10 really tough demands. Failure to meet these demands would result in war (giving the Austro-Hungarian and Germany an excuse to invade).
Britain got involved because they were obliged to help Belgium in the event of invasion (by the Treaty of Washington, 1839). Thus, Britain sent Germany an Ultimaum stating that Germany withdraw from Belgium by midnight. Germany, of course, did not withdraw.
The sinking of Lusitaniaan, a British cruise/transport ship, was one the biggest influence on the American decision for entering the war. German used submarine warfare to sink ships over the years. They had unauthorized submarines along the U.S. east coast. The Zimmerman Telegram was also a reason why the U.S. joined the war. Germany sent a letter to Mexico wanting them to attack the U.S. The message as intercepted and sent to the U.S. That provided the final straw for the U.S. government and they jumped in.
Some domestic discontent during World War 1 was the Russian Revolution. There was trouble within Russia, the people wanted to drop out of the war but their leader insisted otherwise. They came together and overthrew him. There was also the U.S. government wanting to stay neutral.
Propaganda was used during war time too. Use to get people to hate the enemy country or to get more recruits for war. It was a way to get people involved and controlled as the country focused on winning the war. They got their support and supplies from their country.
Fore more information click here: Click here
The Triple Entente: France, Britian, and Russia.
The Triple Alliance: Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Germany.
Great Britian Flag.
U.S. propaganda poster.
Some principal theaters of battle were:
Some major turning points were:
The importance of geographic factors:
For the Trench warfare, both sides lay beneath the barriers of dirt they dug out from the earth. There was also a huge distance between the two trenches, anyone in the middle would be caught dead.
Military decisions and outcomes:
For more information Click here:
German air ship, the Zeppelin.
Troops in the trench warfare.
More troops within a trench.
Alexander Kerensky and his men.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family.
During the course of World War 1, Russia was doing real bad. They lost a lot of their men in the war and they couldn't make the weapons fast enough. Alexander Kerensky was the leader of the provisional government at the time and he decided to stay in the war, no matter how much they're loosing. The people opted against him and wanted to be taken out of the war. Over 2 million soldiers did not like his decisions, so they quit the army. There was conflict between the Bolsheviks and the Provisional government. On October 24-25, 1917, the Bolsheviks revolted and succeeded. V.I. Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks was given power. He made a peace treaty with Germany and dropped out of the war. It is also said that if Russia did not have the Revolution, Germany would have not focused all its powers on France which would not have led to an end.Thus the Russian Revolution altered the course and outcome of the war.
Alexander Kerensky, leader of the Provisional Government.
V.I. Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks.
The U.S. entering the war was a big help too. They provided the allies with numerical and economic superiority that would have eventually broke the stalemate for trench warfare. It is said that the allies would have been able to win without the help of the U.S. but it would have taken longer to do so. All the countries involved were exhausted from fighting. The U.S. brought fresh well-fed fighting Americans. At first they were untrained and had to be equipped by the French. They brought ammunition, tanks, food, an other supplies. Germany surrendered to avoid being invaded. The biggest European reaction to the U.S. late involvement was, and still is, WHAT TOOK YOU SO LONG!?
For more information click here:More Info:
War used to be a beautiful thing. Most boys thought that if they went to war they would come back a man. Now, its nothing like that, way different, much more advanced and violent. War within a country is called a Civil war and a proxy war is when two powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. Each time there is war, all countries involved recruit men and women from their homes to fight in the war. They recruit as much as the can, and most recruited don't return. People left behind in the country must work to provide these soldiers with weapons made in factories. People do die in wars, leaving their family behind. As people are recruited to the army, less are back at the country to work. The process becomes slower.
Soldiers recruited for war.
For more information, click here:
Humans should have the right to support and defend who they want to. There should be no humans killing other humans. Human rights, everyone is equal. The Ottoman government violated that right when they accused the Armenians of supporting the Russians. They set out for all the Armenians to be killed. A genocide, the deliberate mass murder of a particular racial, political or cultural group. The Armenian human rights were useless against this.
Dead Armenians after a massacre, picture taken in 1915.
Survivers of the Armenian genocide.
The Ottoman government accused the Armenians of supporting the Russians. They used these allegations as an excuse to begin a brutal campaign to kill or exile all Armenians. From 1915 to 1918, an estimated 1 million to 1.5 million Armenians were killed by massacres and starvation. Russian, France, and Britain denounced the Turkish killing of the Armenians as "crimes against humanity and civilization". Because of the war, the killings went on without international intervention. Armenian refugees eventually formed the worldwide Armenian diaspora, including communities in America. Until today, the Turkish government denies what happened to the Armenians was a genocide.
For more information, click here: